Lesson Two - Leciono Du

Free Correspondence Course - Senkosta Kuresponda Kurso

Thanks for trying Lesson 1. By now you should have received corrections to the exercises of the first lesson. Here is the next lesson. Keep it up!

Let's review the "grammar-coding" for a second:

Subject thing(s)actionobject thing(s)

Two-thirds of the pattern so far deals with "things" (nouns). Now let's take a look at how to describe these things: good coffee, good tea (adjectives).

Something that describes, such as "good," is called an adjective. In Esperanto, adjectives are grammar coded with an "-a" ending.

As in some other languages (but not in English) the adjective ending ("-a") has to "agree" with the noun it describes. That is, if the noun is plural, the adjective must also be plural. If the noun is an object ("-n"), the adjective must also be an object.

Subject thing(s)actionobject thing(s)
Bona patrohavosbonan filon
A good fatherwill havea good son
Bonaj patrojhavosbonajn filojn
Good fatherswill havegood sons

(Note: "aj" is pronounced like the English word "eye".)

Vocabulary: In each lesson we will introduce about twenty new words to you; learn these but remember to review the words in the previous lesson. Use the words below to practice what you've just learned. The exercises in this lesson are split into three parts.

Vocabulary, lesson two

AdjectivesNounsVerb Roots
bela (beautiful)akvo (water)am' (love)
granda (big)butiko (shop, store)lav' (wash)
nova (new)limonado (lemonade)pet' (ask, request)
sana (healthy)papero (paper)port' (carry, wear)
seka (dry)plumo (pen)renkont' (meet)
varma (warm)taso (cup)skrib' (write)


Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto unu)

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1. A healthy boy drinks warm milk.



2. The new shop sells dry cakes.


3. The big teacher met the new friends.


4. The good friends will-make a beautiful cake.




We haven't been able to give you enough vocabulary to let us vary these exercises very much, but in Esperanto the system of regular word building (with prefixes and suffixes) lets us expand our vocabulary with little effort. For example, the "mal-" makes words of opposite meaning:

bona = goodmalbona = bad
pura = cleanmalpura = dirty
sana = healthymalsana = ill, sick
am' = lovemalam' = hate
amiko = friendmalamiko = enemy

and similarly the "-in-" makes words specifically female:

patro = father, patrino = mother,

and thus for all female living creatures:

kato = cat, katino = female cat.

The 'vir' prefix is the original way to mark something as explicitly male: virkato. Most people avoid using the root form as a 'male' form. It is rare that you have to mark sex - it is proper to say, for example, Sally estas instruisto, instead of saying Sally estas instruistino.

Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto du)

5. The small girl met the ugly sisters.


6. The old cup has new lemonade.


7. The new cup has old milk.


8. Mother will-wash the small cups.


9. The small boy carried the new bread.


10. Cold water washes a small boy.


"Ne" in front of any verb makes it negative, the action that doesn't happen, or didn't happen, or won't happen.

ne havas = doesn't (don't) have; ne faras = doesn't do

Here is just one verb ("to be") displayed in the usual way (all Esperanto verbs follow the same rule!):

General form (infinitive)to beesti
Present tense (-as form)I ammi estas
 you arevi estas
 he isli estas
 she isŝi estas
 it isĝi estas
 we areni estas
 you (plural) arevi estas
 they areili estas
 one isoni estas

est' is the verb root and always appears wherever the verb is used. Does this verb even have a root in English? (am, is, are)

In the above verb display, note:

ŝi (she) is pronounced exactly like the English "she"

ĝi (it) is pronounced like the English "gee!", as in "Jeep"

vi (you) is both singular and plural, like the English "you."

(There is a word "ci", singular, but it is used much as the English singular "thou" - not very often!)

Note, too, that although pronouns do not end in -o when they are "subject things", they do take the -n when they are "object things":


Now that we have learned the pronouns:

Iyouhesheitweyou (plural)theyone

we can form the possessive adjectives:

miavialiaŝiaĝianiaviailia (pronounced ee-lee-a)onia (o-nee-a)
myyourhisheritsouryour (plural)theirone's

which are really adjectives because they identify (describe) the nouns they are attached to. Mia plumo = my pen. The ending "-a" on possessive adjectives follows the same rules about agreement as adjectives:

Mia amiko amas mian fratinon.
Miaj amikoj amas miajn fratinojn.

Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto tri)

11. I forgot my pen


12. We don't have paper.


13. My daughter requested warm milk.


14. Her old friend didn't write.


15.  You will meet their old friends.


16. She will have the warm water.


17. Your new teacher forgot your sugar.


18. The boys hate our new teacher.


19. They sell tea and (kaj) coffee.


20. We will sell her pens and his cake.


Note: kaj (and) is pronounced like the ki in kite - the 'aj' sounds like the English "eye".

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