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Lesson One - Leciono Unu

Free Correspondence Course - Senkosta Kuresponda Kurso

The Free Esperanto Course begins simply, but by Lesson 10 you will understand sophisticaed Esperanto with complex syntax.  Upon satisfactory completion of the series of ten lessons, you will receive a framable "Certificate of Completion".

Let's get started!

Language is all about things (nouns) and their actions (verbs) of energetic thing:

One thing…Acts on…Another thing
birdo…kaptas…insekton.
a bird…catches…an insect
subject nounverbobject noun


Esperanto is “grammar-coded” - you can tell what part each word plays in a sentence from the word endings:

-o-on
single subject nounsingle object noun
   
-oj-ojn
plural subject nounplural object noun


To show when the action takes place, the verb tense (time) is changed by putting these endings on the verb roots:

past tense-isshows an action completed
present tense-asdescribes it as it happens
future tense-osaction still to begin

 

Birdojkaptisinsektojn.
Birdscaughtinsects.
   
Birdojkaptosinsektojn.
Birdswill-catchinsects.


Every noun and every verb follows the above rules without exception.

In Esperanto, things have no gender (they are not male or female, as in many other languages). There is only one word for “The”, no matter if the noun is singular or plural, object or subject. Therefore:

La birdoj kaptas la insektojn.
La birdo kaptis la insekton.

In Esperanto the word order matters less than in English. All the following sentences describe the same action (only the emphasis is changed):

Viro legas libron.Viro libron legas.Libron legas viro.
Libron viro legas.Legas viro libron.Legas libron viro.
 A man reads a book. 


Here are some words in Esperanto (the apostrophe indicates an incomplete word, a root):

NounsVerbs (roots)More nouns
amiko(friend)far’(do, make)kafo(coffee)
filo(son)forges’(forget)kuko(cake)
frato(brother)hav’(have)lakto(milk)
instruisto(teacher)trink’(drink)pano(bread)
knabo(boy)vend’(sell)sukero(sugar)
patro(father)vid’(see)teo(tea)

Each Esperanto letter has only one sound, always. Here is a guide to some of the sounds. The stress is always on the next-to-last syllable of a word.

AEIOU
palmtherethreeglorytoo

c=ts (in lots); oj = oy (in boy); G = g (in go)
kn are always pronounced separately: k-nabo

Study Aid for Lesson One

Read lesson 1 thoroughly, but before trying the exercises on the back, try these translations and check your answers with ours.

1. The friend will-sell milk.
lakton.

2. Mother drinks coffee with milk and sugar.

Patrino -n kun kaj -n.

3. The teachers forgot the tea.

-j -n.

4. The boys will-make the cake.

-n.

5. La knabinoj vidos la instruiston. (knabinoj =
 girls)

6. La instruisto vidis la knabinojn.

7. La filoj trinkas teon sen lakto. (sen = without)

8. La birdoj vidis la insektojn.

Answers to the above sentences

  1. La amiko vendos lakton.
  2. Patrino trinkas kafon kun lakto kaj sukero.
  3. La instruistoj forgesis la teon.
  4. La knaboj faros la kukon.
  5. The girls will see the teacher.
  6. The teacher saw the girls.
  7. The sons drink tea without milk.
  8. The birds saw the insects.

After checking these sentences, do the exercises of lesson 1, below. If there is anything you do not understand, be sure to ask your tutor.

Ekzercoj, Leciono Unu (Exercises, Lesson One)

Take your time and translate the following sentences into Esperanto.  Type your answers in the fields below each sentence.

Examples:Themensoldcakes.
 Lavirojvendiskukojn.
     
 Themansolda cake.
 Lavirovendiskukon.

Note: the word "a" does not appear in Esperanto; the simple noun is enough. Also, a dash indicates that the two English words are translated by one Esperanto word. 

Please enter your email address:  * 

1. Father makes a cake.

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2. The boy will-have the sugar.

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3. The son forgot the milk.

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4. The boys drink tea.

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5. The friend sold the bread.

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6. The teacher sees a boy.

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7. The son has a friend.

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8. The brother made bread.

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9. The boys will-have cake.

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10. Father forgot the sugar.

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11. The boys had friends.

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12. The sons saw the bread.

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13. The brothers sell sugar.

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14. The teacher forgets the boy.

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15. The friend will-drink milk.

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16. The sons are-making cakes.

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17. Father will-sell the cake.

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18. The friend had bread.

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19. The boys will-see the teachers.

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20. The teachers drink coffee.

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Do you have any questions about Esperanto or the material presented above? If so, enter them here:


Anti-bot check: who is the creator of Esperanto?  *  
The answer is "Zamenhof" (without the quotes) and is case-sensitive.

Well, we hope we haven't scared you off in this first meeting with Esperanto.  Just remember - the language ability you used in the above exercises might take months to reach in secondary school French or Spanish.

 

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Fields marked with an * are mandatory.

 

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