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Lesson Five - Leciono Kvin

Lesson Five - Leciono Kvin

 

Saluton!Hello! Greetings!
Bonan tagon!Good day!
Bonan matenon!Good morning!
Bonan vesperon!Good evening!
Bonan nokton!Good night!
Kiel vi fartas?How are you? (farti = to fare, be)
Bone, dankon. Kaj vi?Fine, thanks. And you?
Sufiĉe bone.So-so. (literally, sufficiently well)
Ne tre bone.Not so good.
Bonan apetiton!Enjoy your food! (Bon appetit!)
Je via sano!To your health!
Same al vi, dankon.Same to you, thanks.
Ĝis la revido.See you later. (literally, until the re-seeing)
Adiaŭ.Goodbye. (Adieu).

Conversation: If two people can talk about themselves for 5 minutes each, then they can easily have at least a 10 minute conversation.

By the end of this 10 lesson course, you should have written down all your vital statistics and personal details (true or false!) and you should know them by heart.

After that, you should be able to give a brief talk about yourself in Esperanto, even if you have to prompt yourself with a 'cheat-sheet' in English.

Let's take a look at an example about John Brown:

Mia nomo estas Johano Bruno. Mi loĝas en Usono. Mi komencis lerni Esperanton antaŭ kvar semajnoj. Ĝi estas tre facila lingvo. Mi loĝas en domo kun mia edzino kaj niaj infanoj. Ni havas unu filinon kaj du filojn.

Mi havas korespondantojn en tri landoj.

Some of these words haven't been introduced yet.  Can you translate them from context?  (Be sure to ask your instructor, below, if you have any trouble!)

Correlatives - Question and Statement Words

There are 45 very useful words which are a part of a regular system of correlated words (known technically, therefore, as "correlatives"). The meaning of any correlative is the combined meaning of the root (beginning) and the ending: (simple, isn't it?)

ki- (what)-othing
--akind of, sort of
ti- (that)-eplace
--uone, or person
i- (some)-omquantity (amount)
--amtime
ĉi- (every)-alreason, for...reason
--elmanner, in...way
neni- (no)-esone's; person's

Each of the roots (ex. "ki-") can combine with any of the endings to create a question or statement word. Examples: kiom = how much? tio = that thing, iam = sometime, nenie = nowhere, ĉiel = in every way, in every manner.

As you can see, you don't actually have to memorize 45 separate words.  You only need to memorize five roots and nine endings (14 pieces overall) for a gain of 45 words.  You will see this again as you learn!

Typical correlatives and their equally typical English equivalents:

EnglishEsperanto
how? - (in) what mannerkiel
when? - (at) what timekiam
where? - (at, in) what placekie
why? - (for) what reasonkial
how much? - (in) what amountkiom
always - (at) every timeĉiam
thus - (in) that way, mannertiel
nobody - no one, no personneniu
somewhere - (at) some placeie

Pay attention to the stress: ne-ni-e, ki-u, ti-al, etc.

Note that in English prepositions (like "at", above) may be included in the meaning of the Esperanto correlative.

The endings "a" and "u" take the grammar coding "-n" and/or "-j" where appropriate. The ending "o" takes the grammar coding "-n" where appropriate.

If a question contains a question word such as "kio" or "kie", one does not use the yes/no question word "ĉu":

What is that?= Kio estas tio?
Where is that?= Kie estas tio?

Compare with:

Are you drinking?= Ĉu vi trinkas?

Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvin


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Translate into Esperanto:

1. What (thing) is that (thing)?

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2. Where is my cup?

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3. Which is my book?†

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4. Who ate my cake?†

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5. When will you eat?

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6. Everything is wet.

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7. I forgot everything.

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8. My pen is somewhere.

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9. Then I drank my tea.

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10. How much (do) you have? ("do" is not to be translated)

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11. How (does) she run?

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12. Why are you smoking? (use the simple verb form)

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13. Nobody's coffee has milk.

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14. How (did) you make it?

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15. I am not that-kind-of teacher.

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16. We have all-kinds-of cups.

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17. What kind of sandwich (do) you have?

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18. What (did) you ask for?

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19. Is everyone dry?

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20. Who is that?

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†Note the difference between kio and kiu.


kio = what thing; e.g., plumo, taso, limonado, etc.
kiu = which thing; e.g., la nigra plumo, la unua domo, etc.
kiu also means who. Kiu vi estas?

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The answer is "Warsaw" (without the quotes) and is case-sensitive.

 

 



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