Lesson Five - Leciono Kvin

Lesson Five - Leciono Kvin


Saluton!Hello! Greetings!
Bonan tagon!Good day!
Bonan matenon!Good morning!
Bonan vesperon!Good evening!
Bonan nokton!Good night!
Kiel vi fartas?How are you? (farti = to fare, be)
Bone, dankon. Kaj vi?Fine, thanks. And you?
Sufiĉe bone.So-so. (literally, sufficiently well)
Ne tre bone.Not so good.
Bonan apetiton!Enjoy your food! (Bon appetit!)
Je via sano!To your health!
Same al vi, dankon.Same to you, thanks.
Ĝis la revido.See you later. (literally, until the re-seeing)
Adiaŭ.Goodbye. (Adieu).

Conversation: If two people can talk about themselves for 5 minutes each, then they can easily have at least a 10 minute conversation.

By the end of this 10 lesson course, you should have written down all your vital statistics and personal details (true or false!) and you should know them by heart.

After that, you should be able to give a brief talk about yourself in Esperanto, even if you have to prompt yourself with a 'cheat-sheet' in English.

Let's take a look at an example about John Brown:

Mia nomo estas Johano Bruno. Mi loĝas en Usono. Mi komencis lerni Esperanton antaŭ kvar semajnoj. Ĝi estas tre facila lingvo. Mi loĝas en domo kun mia edzino kaj niaj infanoj. Ni havas unu filinon kaj du filojn.

Mi havas korespondantojn en tri landoj.

Some of these words haven't been introduced yet.  Can you translate them from context?  (Be sure to ask your instructor, below, if you have any trouble!)

Correlatives - Question and Statement Words

There are 45 very useful words which are a part of a regular system of correlated words (known technically, therefore, as "correlatives"). The meaning of any correlative is the combined meaning of the root (beginning) and the ending: (simple, isn't it?)

ki- (what)-othing
--akind of, sort of
ti- (that)-eplace
--uone, or person
i- (some)-omquantity (amount)
ĉi- (every)-alreason, for...reason
--elmanner, in...way
neni- (no)-esone's; person's

Each of the roots (ex. "ki-") can combine with any of the endings to create a question or statement word. Examples: kiom = how much? tio = that thing, iam = sometime, nenie = nowhere, ĉiel = in every way, in every manner.

As you can see, you don't actually have to memorize 45 separate words.  You only need to memorize five roots and nine endings (14 pieces overall) for a gain of 45 words.  You will see this again as you learn!

Typical correlatives and their equally typical English equivalents:

how? - (in) what mannerkiel
when? - (at) what timekiam
where? - (at, in) what placekie
why? - (for) what reasonkial
how much? - (in) what amountkiom
always - (at) every timeĉiam
thus - (in) that way, mannertiel
nobody - no one, no personneniu
somewhere - (at) some placeie

Pay attention to the stress: ne-ni-e, ki-u, ti-al, etc.

Note that in English prepositions (like "at", above) may be included in the meaning of the Esperanto correlative.

The endings "a" and "u" take the grammar coding "-n" and/or "-j" where appropriate. The ending "o" takes the grammar coding "-n" where appropriate.

If a question contains a question word such as "kio" or "kie", one does not use the yes/no question word "ĉu":

What is that?= Kio estas tio?
Where is that?= Kie estas tio?

Compare with:

Are you drinking?= Ĉu vi trinkas?

Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvin

Please enter your email address:


Translate into Esperanto:

1. What (thing) is that (thing)?


2. Where is my cup?


3. Which is my book?†


4. Who ate my cake?†


5. When will you eat?


6. Everything is wet.


7. I forgot everything.


8. My pen is somewhere.


9. Then I drank my tea.


10. How much (do) you have? ("do" is not to be translated)


11. How (does) she run?


12. Why are you smoking? (use the simple verb form)


13. Nobody's coffee has milk.


14. How (did) you make it?


15. I am not that-kind-of teacher.


16. We have all-kinds-of cups.


17. What kind of sandwich (do) you have?


18. What (did) you ask for?


19. Is everyone dry?


20. Who is that?


†Note the difference between kio and kiu.

kio = what thing; e.g., plumo, taso, limonado, etc.
kiu = which thing; e.g., la nigra plumo, la unua domo, etc.
kiu also means who. Kiu vi estas?

Do you have any questions about Esperanto or the material presented above? If so, enter them here:

Anti-bot check: In which city was the first grammar of Esperanto published?  

The answer is "Warsaw" (without the quotes) and is case-sensitive.



Fields marked with an * are mandatory.



May 2021
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
25 26 27 28 29 30 01
02 03 04 05 06 07 08
09 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31 01 02 03 04 05
Show PHP error messages